How do we obtain the expectation value between 2 qubits?

In the Science paper, Phase transitions in a programmable quantum spin glass simulator, they mention that the D-wave processor can easily determine the correlation function between two spins (see eqn. 4, and figure S11).

What are the commands to specify this output?



  • In Fig. S11 we discuss the spin spin correlations found from classical samples taken at the end of a quenched anneal.  To calculate this let us start with some notation.  Take a set of C classical samples, call them S^i for i in 1..C (^ meaning superscript).  The value of a spin j in sample S^i is referred to as S^i_j (_j being subscript) and can be +1 or -1.  Then, to calculate the spin spin correlation of spin m with spin n calculate sum_{i = 1..C} (S^i_m * S^j_n) / C.  For a perfect anti-ferromagnetic and averaged across all nearest neighbor pairs you should get -1.  For a perfect ferromagnetic, you should get 1.  Eqn. 4, on the other hand, describes how to calculate a more interesting parameter, the spin spin overlap where one calculates intersample correlations for each spin instead of intrasample correlations between spins.

    The high level work flow is setup a set of couplings to describe the spin system you want, then take a set of samples using either a simple forward anneal over some time, or a more complicated pause / quench.  Then calculate the above on the results.

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  • Thank you for the response, Andrew. It definitely clears everything up. 

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