The D-Wave QPU must be must be kept at a temperature near absolute zero and isolated from the surrounding environment to behave quantum mechanically. The system achieves these requirements as follows:
- Cryogenic temperatures, achieved using a closed-loop cryogenic dilution refrigerator system. The QPU operates at temperatures below 20 mK.
- Shielding from electromagnetic interference, achieved using a radio frequency (RF)–shielded enclosure and a magnetic shielding subsystem.