A binary quadratic model (BQM) is a problem comprising a collection of binary-valued variables (variables that can be assigned two values, for example -1, 1) with associated linear and quadratic biases.

Problems in this class include QUBO and Ising models.

The Ocean software includes the **BinaryQuadraticModel** class, which can contain both QUBO and Ising models. Its methods provide convenient utilities for working with, and interworking between, the two representations of a problem. See the Ocean documentation for more information.

To get some hands-on practice creating small BQMs, see the Learn to Formulate Problems section in the D-Wave system documentation.

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